Careful readers of the book of Jonah find it to be an ingenious and artfully crafted work of literature. Its four chapters recount two incidents. In chapter 1 and 2 Jonah is given a command from God but fails to obey it; and in chapters 3 and 4 he is given the command again and this time carries it out. The two accounts are laid out in almost completely parallel patterns:
|Scene 1 Jonah, the pagans, and the sea||Scene 2 Jonah, the pagans, and the city|
|Jonah and God’s Word||Jonah and God’s Word|
|1:1 God’s Word comes to Jonah 1:2 The message to be conveyed 1:3 The response of Jonah||3:1 God’s Word comes to Jonah 3:2 The message to be conveyed 3:3 The response of Jonah|
|Jonah and God’s World||Jonah and God’s World|
|1:4 The word of warning 1:5 The response of the pagans 1:6 The response of the pagan leader 1:7ff How the pagan’s response was ultimately better than Jonah’s||3:4 The word of warning 3:5 The response of the pagans 3:6 The response of the pagan leader 3:7ff How the pagan’s response was ultimately better than Jonah’s|
|Jonah and God’s Grace||Jonah and God’s Grace|
|2:1-10 How God taught grace to Jonah through the fish||4:1-10 How God taught grace to Jonah through the plant|
Despite the literary sophistication of the text, many modern readers still dismiss the work because the text tells us that Jonah was saved from the storm when swallowed by a “great fish” (Jonah 1:17). How you respond to this will depend on how you read the rest of the Bible. If you accept the existence of God and the resurrection of Christ (a far greater miracle), then there is nothing particularly difficult about reading Jonah literally. Certainly many people today believe all miracles are impossible, but that skepticism is just that—a belief that itself cannot be proven. The fish is mentioned only in two brief verses and there are no descriptive details. It is reported more as a simple fact of what happened. So let’s not get distracted by the fish.
The careful structure of the book reveals nuances of the author’s message. Both episodes show how Jonah, a staunch religious believer, regards and relates to people who are racially and religiously different from him. The book of Jonah yields many insights about God’s love for societies and people beyond the community of believers. Yet to understand many lessons for our social relationships, we have to see that the book’s main teaching is not sociological, but theological. Jonah was a God of his own making, a God who simply smites the bad people, for instance, the wicked Ninevites and blesses the good people, for instance, Jonah and his countrymen. When the real God—not Jonah’s counterfeit—keeps showing up, Jonah is thrown into fury or despair. Jonah finds the real God to be an enigma, because he cannot reconcile the mercy of God with his justice. How, Jonah asks, can God be merciful and forgiving to people who have done such violence and evil? How can God be both merciful and just?
The question is not answered in the book of Jonah. As part of the entire Bible, however, the book of Jonah is like a chapter that drives the Scripture’s overall plotline forward. It teaches us to look ahead to how God saved the world through the one who called himself the ultimate Jonah (Matthew 12:41) so that he could be both just and the justifier of those who believe (Romans 3:26). Only when we readers fully grasp this gospel will we be neither cruel exploiters like the Ninevites nor Pharisaical believers like Jonah, but rather Spirit-changed, Christ-like women and men.
* Adapted from Timothy Keller’s The Prodigal Prophet: Jonah and the Mystery of God’s Mercy.
This Week’s Bible Reading Schedule:
|Monday: Jonah 2||☐☐||Thursday: Micah 1||☐|
|Tuesday: Jonah 3||☐||Friday: Micah 2||☐|
|Wednesday: Jonah 4||☐||Saturday: Micah 3||☐|